მაია ჯალიაშვილი _ დროის მეტაფიზიკა ქართულ მოდერნისტულ რომანში


qarTul modernistul romanebSi drois metafizika warmodgenilia adamianis Sinagan samyarosTan kavSirSi. es romanebi, upirvelesad, sulis biografiebia da, aqedan gamomdinare, xdeba erTi, ucvleli, sulis drois e.i. maradisobis gamovlineba konkretul sivrceSi, rac mis awmyod, warsulad Tu momavlad saxeldebas ganapirobebs.

`ra aris dro? – kiTxulobs Tomas mani `jadosnur mTaSi~ da iqve pasuxobs: `saidumloeba – usaxelo da yovlismZle, movlenaTa samyaros ganmsazRvreli piroba, moZraoba, gadajaWvuli da Serwymuli sivrceSi sxeulebis ganlagebasa da moZraobasTan. iarsebebda ki dro, moZraoba rom ar yofiliyo? an moZraoba ki iarsebebda drois gareSe? kiTxva kiTxvad rCeba. aris Tu ara dro sivrcis funqcia, an piriqiT? an iqneb isini erTmaneTis identurni arian? aqac mxolod kiTxvas vsvamT! dro moqmedia. mas zmniT gamosaxatavi Tviseba gaCnia: igi `iwvevs~, magram ras? cvlilebas! `axla~ da `maSin~ erTi da igive ar aris. `aq~ ar aris `iq~, radgan maT Soris moZraoba Zevs, magram vinaidan moZraoba, risi meSveobiTac dros vzomavT, wriulia da Tavis TavSi Caketili, amitom aseTi moZraobisa da cvlilebisTvis aseve Tavisuflad SeiZleboda simSvide da uZraoba gvewodebina – `maSin~ xom gamudmebiT meordeba `axlaSi~, `aq~ ki cnebaSi `iq~ (mani 1984: 5).

dro qarTul modernistul romanebSi gvevlineba, rogorc `movlenaTa ganmsazRvreli piroba~. Tomas maniseuli SekiTxvebi drosTan dakavSirebul yvela problemas moicaven. Tu rogor ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs `aq~ da `iq~, `maSin~ da `axla~ qarTvel modernistTa yuradRebis saganicaa.

`yovel civilizacias gansakuTrebuli Sexeduleba hqonda droze: bevri mas maradiul gameorebad miiCnevda. mas xan swor xazad warmoidgendnen, xan ki spiraliseburad. platonikosTaTvis weli wriulia da srulyofili, TiTqos zeciuri sxeulebis moZraobas imeorebs. qristianebisTvis dro apokalipturia da sworxazovani, indoelTaTvis iluzoruli – mxolod gardasaxvaTa realoba. XIX saukune dros maradiul, ganuwyvetliv progresad aRiqvams~ (pasi 1999: 2).

sazogadod, romanis dro gamoirCeva sisavsiT, radgan aq xdeba Cveulebrivi yofis Zlieri dramatizacia. romanists personaJi gamohyavs Cveulebrivi yofis sazRvrebidan, raTa cxovreba mTlianobaSi, mTeli sisavsiT ganacdevinos. TviTon cxovrebis prozas xSirad amgvari sisavse aklia. personaJi ki umetesad erTbaSad uamrav sawinaaRmdego vnebaTa WidilSi cxovrebas mTlianobaSi SeigrZnobs. amitomac dro Cqardeba. mcire monakveTSi imdeni movlena xdeba, rasac Cveulebriv yofaSi wlebi dasWirdeboda.

m. prusti wers, rom romanSi erTi saaTis ganmavlobaSi adamianSi Relavs uamravi sixaruli Tu naRveli, cxovrebaSi ki amas wlebi moundeboda. Tanac ise, rom mxolod zogierTis Secnobas moaxerxebda kaci. arseboben gancdani, – fiqrobs prusti, – romelTac verc ki aRviqvamT, radgan maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia imgvari Senelebuloba, rac `droSi~ Zneli mosaxelTebelia (prusti 1993: 112).

modernist mwerals, upirvelesad, adamianis `me~ ainteresebs da `dris xlarTebi~ mxolod imisTvis sWirdeba, rom es `me~ rac SeiZleba, mraval ganzomilebaSi warmoaCinos.

`gvelis perangis~ pirvelive Tavis epigrafad wamZRvarebuli sityvebi: `Cemi Zma aryofili viTar miyvardis, umetes mzisa da umetes xmalisa, rameTu iyo igi sxvai Cemi~ – simboluri mravalmniSvnelovnebis Semcvelia, romelTagan gamorCeulia pirovnebis `mes~ damokidebuleba Tavissave idealur `sxva mesTan~.

herman hese werda: `Tqven ise laparakobT, TiTqos `me~ cnobili obieqturi sidide iyos, magram es sruliadac ar aris swori. TiToeul CvenganSi ori `mea~ da vinmem rom icodes, sad iwyeba pirveli da sad mTavrdeba meore, brZenTabrZeni iqneboda. Cven subieqtur, empiriul, individualur `mes~ rogorc ki davakvirdebiT, maSinve vnaxavT, rom igi cvalebadia, Wirveulia, sul advilad ganicdis yovelgvar garegan gavlenas… magram aris meore `mec~, dafaruli pirvel `meSi~. masTan gadaxlarTuli, magram isini erTmaneTSi ar unda avurioT. es meore umaRlesi, wminda `mea~. (indoelTa `atmani~, Tqven mas `brahmasTan~ aigivebT), mas ar gaaCnia piradi sazrisi. igi moaswavebs imas, ramdenad wilnayari varT RmerTTan, cxovrebasTan, mTelTan, upirovnosTan, zepirovnulTan~ (yaralaSvili 1988: 144).

romanis gmiris gza, upirvelesad, amgvarad warimarTeba – adamiani midis Tavis dakargul, gaucxoebul `mes~-Tan. `Seimoseba~ Sinagani adamianiT – amgvarad ubrundeba RvTaebriv sawyiss. TavisTavad, es gzac mravalSriania da erTdroulad moicavs ramdenime aspeqts: 1.adamianis dabruneba RmerTTan, 2. fesvebTan (realuri mama, samSoblo), 3. sakuTar TavTan. amaTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovania adamianis `dabruneba~ RmerTTan. drouli TvalsazrisiT, es gza wamsac gulisxmobs da maradisobasac. grigol robaqiZe wers: `RmerTi `adgens~ Tavis Tavs samyaroSi, garna am `dginebiT~ ar `Tavdeba~ igi. yoveli mqmedi acxadebs – kidev meti: amyarebs – Tavis arsebas naqnarSi~ (robaqiZe 1991: 243.

misi azriT, `qceulSi~ RvTis aqti dasrulebulia, aqedan gamomdinareobs ucvleli kanoniereba mineralur, mcenareul Tu cxovelur sxeulebSi. adamianSi ki es aqti RvTisa Canasaxia TiTqo, romelic adamianma TviTon unda ganasxeulos. `aq marxia adamianis RvTiurziaryofiloba. adamians SeuZlia asec imoqmedos da isec – Tavisufleba RvTiurobis niSania. xolo: radgan adamiani RmerTi ar aris mainc, amis gamo sicocxle misi cdaa Sinagani, cda: romelsac `cdena~ – `cdomad~ Tan axlavs mudam Jam. SesaZloa vidodes adamiani RvTiuri geziT, SesaZloa gadauxvios man am gezs – da ai, gvevlineba igi: sworad an mruded, waRmarTad an ukuRmarTad, marTlad an umarTlod, kargad an avad, keTilad an borotad. igi yovel wels gzajvaredinzea mimdgari: marjvniT marji, anu misi RvTiuri modgmis `ganaRdeba~, marcxniT – marcxi anu Tavis Ralati da ganadgureba. es usaSinelesi da Tanve unayofieresi Wimi Tu Zabuli RvTiurisa da araRvTiurisa adamianis bunebaSi maister ekhartma gamohkveTa erT sworupovar TqmaSi: `TumcaRa sruliad sxva, igi, RmerTi ufro axloa CemTan, vidre me TviTon Cem TavTan~ (robaqiZe 1991: 244).

`sruliad sxvas~ grigol robaqiZe Tvlis transcendentad, `ufro axlos~ ki – imanentad. `me var namdvili mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac CemSi xorcieldeba igi: `sruliad sxva~, anu RmerTi~. mwerali aqedan daaskvnis: `adamiani `qceulia~, radgan igi naxevrad nivTier samyaros ekuTvnis, igi Tanve `qcevadia~, radgan meore naxevriT Tavisi bunebisa igi RvTiur Taursaa ziarebuli: mqmneli da mqnadi erTad. qcevadi samyaro – ara samyaro, erTxel da samudamod qmnili, aramed iseTi, romelic mudam Jam iqmnis – aris are adamianis TviTmxilebis da TviTmyarebisa. viTareba am areSi ubralo `procesSi~, anu naturaluri dgena mineralis, mcenaris, cxovelis, – aramed qmediTi `istoria~, savse dramatiuli xveuliT da ganfeniT. `istoria~ ese moiTxovs ara marto winxedvas: saiTken, aramed ukan gaxedvasac: `saidan~ (robaqiZe 1991: 245). es vrceli citata imitom movixmeT, rom `gvelis perangSi~ swored es `qmediTi istoriaa~ gadmocemuli.

`gvelis perangis~ personaJebi SeiZleba gaviazroT, rogorc arCibald mekeSis sulieri Ziebis gzaze TviT misive Sinagani impulsebi (Sesabamisad, damabrkolebelni Tu xelSemwyobni). amitomac es romani mZafrad aris gaJRenTili religiur-mistikuri intonaciebiT, radgan umaRlesi, wminda `me~, romliskenac miiswrafis romanis gmiri – masSive arsebuli RvTaebrivi naperwkalia, romelic adamians akavSirebs RmerTTan, transcendentur samyarosTan.

drois robaqiZiseuli metafizika am romans samyaros erTgvar modelad aqcevs. xdeba konkretul movlenaTa ganzogadeba da arCibald mekeSis `Tavgdasavali~, saerTod, adamianis bedad aRiqmeba. drois msvleloba romanSi warmodgindeba or gansxvavebul ganzomilebaSi. 1. es aris dro horizontalze – arCil mayaSvili droSi moZraobs, gadaadgildeba. xdeba movlenaTa drouli cvla. arCibaldi garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi – mamaze fiqriT dawyebuli da misi `povniT~ damTavrebuli – uamrav SemTxvevaTa monawilea. igi xvdeba sxvadasxva personaJebs, iZens gamocdilebas da sxva. imavdroulad, arCibald mekeSis moZraoba xdeba sxva ganzomilebaSic – es aris misi Sinagani samyaro. aq xdeba drois CaRrmaveba vertikalurad~ – garegani movlenebi gmirs exmareba am `CaRrmavebaSi~. yoveli axali garegani gamocdileba mis sibrZnes amravlebs da exmareba sakuTari arsebisa Tu samyaros gaazrebaSi.

mkiTxvels romanSi warmoudgeba `kacadqmnis~ rTuli da Rrma procesi, romelic gare samyaroSi ki ara, aramed adamianis SigniT mimdinareobs, amitomac romanSi warmodgenili sinamdvile irealuri elferiT imoseba da magiurad aRiqmeba. (literaturaSi arsebobs aseTi termini `magiuri sinamdvile~, romelic herman heses ekuTvnis). sulier procesebs xilul movlenaTa saxe eniWebaT da realuri sagnebi `magiuri sinamdvilis~ simboloebad warmodgeba. iqmneba erTgvari Caketili, SemosazRvruli sivrce, xdeba erTgvari `hermetizacia~. vfiqrobT, `gvelis perangi~ hermetul romanTan garkveul siaxloves amJRavnebs.

nicSe saubrobs sulis sam cvalebaze, romelic droSia. suli `iqmneba~ jer aqlemad, mere lomad da bolos bavSvad. `Sen movale xar~, es aris sulis cvalebis is safexuri, roca adamianSi Warbobs morCileba, uneboba. Semdeg suli icvleba lomad, romelic gamoxatavs adamianis daumorCileblobas, transcendentur samyarosadmi eWvs, gaorebulobas. misi mTavari principia `me msurs~. Tumca igi axal Rirebulebebs ver qmnis, magram `Tavisuflebis mopoveba axali qmnadobisTvis~ warmoadgens lomis Zlierebas. erT dros wmidaTa wmidaSi adamiani hpovebs `Secdomasa da Tavnebobas~ da Tavisufali xdeba, magram aq ar mTavrdeba yvelaferi. suli icvleba `bavSvad~, radgan bavSvi `umankoebaa da daviwyeba~, axali dasabami, laRoba (TamaSi), TviT – Zruli borbali, pirveli Zvra, Tqma RvTaebrivi dasturisa~ (nicSe 1993: 25).

bavSvobaSi mTavaria swored `daviwyeba~ da `RvTaebrivi dasturi~ – yvelaferi iwyeba Tavidan, Tanac RvTaebrivi wesrigiT. `lomi, iseve rogorc aqlemi, nicSes naazrevSi kacobriobis istoriis garkveul epoqaze migviTiTebs, esaa Tavad `zaratustras~ avtoris Tanadrouli epoqa. uSfoTveli, mSvidi, morCili aqlemi iqca lomad, romelic RvTaebriv `aras~ eubneba yvela Zvel maRal Rirebulebas, movaleobas! Zveli ingreva, hkargavs fass. ra unda akeTos adamianma am RirebulebaTa vakuumSi? Zveli, Secdomebze agebuli Rirebulebebi unda Secvalos axalma, yvelaferi unda daiwyos Tavidan~ (buaCiZe 1993: 253).

`yvelafris axlidan~ dawyebis surviliT aris gamsWvaluli qarTuli modernistuli romanis gmirTa goneba. gvelis mier perangis gaxdis metaforis erTi aspeqti amasac gulisxmobs.

`me msurs~ nicSesTvis ar aris calsaxa da erTmniSvnelovani, amisTvis saWiroa TviT survilis Secnoba. es ki rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia. igi gulisxmobs, upirvelesad, TviTSemecnebas, etapobrivad amaRlebas. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi emzadeba arCibald mekeSi `survilis~ – mamis povnis ocnebis Sesasruleblad, magram amisTvis `did gzas~ gaivlis, xdeba misi sulis `cvaleba~, amaRleba. survilis Secnoba misTvis samyaros Secnobasac eTanabreba.

savarsamiZis saxeSic mkafiod irekleba sulis amgvari cvalebadoba – mamisgan gaqceviT man Tavisi neba gamoxata – aqlemi lomad iqca, morCileba TavisuflebiT Seicvala. Tumca mas bolomde srulyofilad ara aqvs gacnobierebuli, ra surs. TviTon am survils `ver cnobs~, amitomac sulis cvaleba `bavSvad~ metad nela da mtkivneulad mimdinareobs. farvizis sikvdilis Semdeg TiTqos mokvda masSi `lomi~ da daiZra fiqri axal RirebulebaTa Sesaqmnelad, gasaRviZeblad. axali cxovrebis dasawyisad, Tumca Zala ar eyo da kvlav survilis tyveobaSi darCa, amgvarad, kvlav `lomis~ – gaurkveveli, aramdgradi, meryevi poziciis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda.

uiliam folkneri werda: `dro medinia, romelsac ar gaaCnia sxva arseboba, garda pirovnebaTa wamieri gardasaxvisa. ar arsebobs `iyo~, arsebobs mxolod `aris~. `iyo” rom arsebuliyo, wuxili da dardi ar iqneboda~ (folkneri 1984:  69).

`pirovnebaTa wamieri gardasaxvani” qarTvel modernist romanistTa umTavresi fiqris sagania. savarsamiZe xandaxan cdilobs drois gareSe cxovrebas. amas igi axerxebs italiaSi jenetTan erTad ganmartoebisas. qveynis drtvinvas moSorebuli albano mas `amoagdebs~ drois Cveuli mdinarebidan. jibis saaTic ki uCerdeba. saxlis kedelze amoWrili mzis saaTiT misdevs~ dros, an kidev maxlobeli eklesiis zarebis rekva mianiSnebs drois garkveul monakveTebs. Tumca, aRar aRelvebs, sazogadod, dro. mamlis yivilze Tendeba, mzis Casvlisas Ramdeba. dro TiTqos am or wertils Soris moeqceva, Tavis TavSi Caiketeba. am gziT savarsamiZe cdilobs gare samyaroSi gafantuli mzeris sulSi Cabrunebas. iseTi gancda aqvs, TiTqos arasdros utrialia cxovrebis SuagulSi, ar `gasdevnebia~ dros. amitomac iyo, rom swored albanoSi SeZlo Tavisi sulis bneli ufskrulebis moxilva.

arCibald mekeSi cxovrobs `droSi~ da ara `sivrceSi~. sivrce aq meoreulia. `sad~ yofnas yovelTvis gadaswonis `rogor~-mdgomareoba. arCibald mekeSi yvelafers ganicdis, Wvrets, gznebs da ara ubalod aRiqvams. amgvarad, `gvelis perangis~ drois koncefcia emsgavseba bibliisas, sadac cxovreba warmoCndeba, rogorc maradiuli, dausazRvravi dineba RmerTisken – momavali xsnisken. s. averincevma drois es mdinareba saxeldo, rogorc~ olami, romelic TavisTavSi Seicavs yvelafers. samyaro, rogorc istoria~. `arCibaldis saqarTvelosken mogzaurobas Tan axlavs iseTi miTologiuri motivebi, romlebic mis moZraobas qristianuli simbolikis konteqstSi aTavseben. am simbolikis Sesabamisad, igi miimarTeba vertikalurad aRma, anu qvesknelidan zesknelisken, sibnelidan sinaTlisken. amas adasturebs romanSi gamoyenebuli mravali bibliuri motivi. maT Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania aRTqmuli miwisken ebraelTa ormocwlian mogzaurobasTan dakavSirebuli aluziebi~ (kiziria 1989: 6).

drois Zalian saintereso mxatvruli koncefcia SemogvTavaza xorxe luis borxesma moTxrobaSi: `baRi, romelSic bilikebi itotebian~. moTxrobis erTi gmiris azriT, samyaro hgavs gantotvil bilikTa baRs, sadac es TiToeuli biliki dros ganasaxierebs. `ara swamda erTiani, absoluturi droisa. igi xedavda droebaTa uTvalav rigebs. xedavda gantotvil, Tanmxvedr da paralelur droTa TviTmzard bades~ (borxesi 1994: 34)

am SemTxvevaSic xdeba `mes~ ganvrcoba, Sinagani sulieri samyaros garkveul fizikur sivrced gadaqceva, gancdaTa gasagnobriveba. Cven davxetialobT Cvensave TavSi da sxvadasxva bilikze vxvdebiT gansxvavebul adamianebs – Cveni vnebebisa da survilebis xorcSesxmul saxeebs. erTi ram ki ar icvleba – Cven yovelTvis vxvdebiT Cvensave Tavs.

`gvelis perangSi~ arCibald mekeSi poulobs sakuTari Tavisken mimaval gzas, magram yoveli povna warmoSobs Ziebis axal gzebs. arsad ar aris am gzaze wertili – Sesveneba. bevrs sagulisxmos igznebs ZiebaTa am rTul xlarTebSi arCil mayaSvili. umTavresi ki mainc sulSi RvTaebrivi naperwklis gznebaa: `me Seni var, mamav~… `Sen CemSi xar, mamav~.

`gvelis perangSi~ warmodgenili drois metafizika samyaros fantasmagoriad aqcevs, sadac araferia umniSvnelo. aq yvelafers Tavisi funqcia aqvs. swored dro aris is magiuri Zala, romelic romanis gmirs samyarosTan erTobis tkbil-mware bednierebas agrZnobinebs.

amiran gomarTeli wers: `gvelis perangis~ avtoris azrovneba, misi Ziebebic qarTvelobis arsis dasadgenad swored rom zeistoriulia. miuxedavad imisa, rom romans konkretuli drois lokali aqvs – iwyeba 1917 wlis zafxulSi hamadanSi da mTavrdeba 1918 w. zafxulSi sairmeSi, magram drois amgvari aRqma mxolod realur plans Seexeba. mTlianad romanis, misi yvela plastis mimarT ki formaluria. robaqiZis msoflmxedvelobis areSia ara mxolod es erTi weli, aramed aTaswleulebi kacobriobis istoriisa~ (gomarTeli 1997: 164).

gmiri fiqriTa da gancdiT gadaswvdeba am istorias da dros ganicdis, rogorc `mes~ sxvadyofnas.

ralf emersoni werda: `me vxedav saberZneTs, italias, espaneTs Cems gonebaSi. es `xedva~ ara mxolod aerTebda sxvadasxva geografiul adgils, aramed sxvadasxva drosac. wami itevda maradisobasac. `Tu wamis maradisobas CavwvdebiT, amiT mTel cxovrebas gaviazrebT~(emersoni 1989: 486)

`yovel droSi Zevs saidumlo, – fiqrobda Tomas mani, – radgan saidumlo zedroulia, magram zedroulobis forma arsebobs axla da aq… radgan arsi cxovrebisa awmyoa~ (mani 1989:  489).  ase xdeboda awmyos warmosaxviT garRveva da zedrouli saidumlos gzneba.

a. losevis azriT, dro ar aris wminda xangrZlivoba, radgan igi an rodisme mTavrdeba an arasdros. dro aris `alogikuri Camoyalibeba maradisobisa~. amitomac, dro, erTdroulad, aris da ar aris kidec maradisoba, radgan maradisoba ar aris gansazRvruli da SemosazRvruli. losevi saubrobs drois gansxvavebuli xarisxiT mudmivobaze. didi moZraobisas sxeuli kargavs moculobas, igi erTdroulad moicavs mTel usazRvroebas – es aris ideis maradiuloba – es ki eTanabreba platonis ideas, romelic erTdroulad yvelgan aris da arsad. aqedan a. losevi akeTebs saintereso daskvnas: `miTologiaSi yvelaferi xorcielia da, imave dros, ar aris xorcieli~ (Лосев  1990: 475). misive azriT, erTi da igive sagani SeiZleba warmodgindes da gamoixatos usazRvro formebiT, imis mixedviT, Tu romeli sivrcul-drouli yofis planSi moviazrebT. igi asaxelebs antikuri kosmosis xuT rigs: cecxli (pirveli, erTiani), Suqi (goneba, idea), haeri (suli, samSvinveli), miwa (sofiuri sxeuli), wyali (meoTxe sawyisis xarisxi). aqedan gamomdinare ki, arsebobs sivrcis xuTi tipi da sxeulis xuTi tipi: cecxlis sxeuli, naTlis sxeuli, haeris, miwisa da wylisa.

iseve rogorc realurad, aseve irealuradac SeiZleba am sxeulebis cvalebadoba. losevis azriTve, `imdeni droa, ramdenic sagani. sagani ki, ufro zustad, misi saxeobani imdenia, ramdenic azri da idea~ (Лосев  1990: 473).

`axali epoqis dro qristianuli drois pirmSoa, pirmSo da uaryofa: igi sworxazovania da Seuqcevadi, magram mas ara aqvs dasawyisi da arc dasasruli eqneba, igi arasdros SeuqmniaT da arc rasdros daemxoba. misi mTavari moqmedi piri codvili suli ki ara, adamianTa modgmis evoluciaa _ saxelad istoria. Tanamedroveobis fundamentSi ormagi paradoqsia Cadebuli. erTi mxriv, yofierebis sazrisi unda veZioT ara warsulSi an maradisobaSi, aramed momavalSi. swored amitomaa, rom istorias progressac uwodeben~. `Cven dros ar gaaCnia arsi, ufro metic, misi pozicia nebismieri arsis kritikaSi mdgomareobs~. `axali dro axali miTologiaa: Tanamedroveobis udidesi qmnilebebi – servantesidan joisamde da velaskesidan marsel diuSanamde – sxva araferia, Tu ara drois kritikis Sesaxeb miTis gansxvavebuli variantebi~ (pasi 1999: 4).

oqtavio pasi Tvlis, rom `RvTaebrivi komedia~ qristianuli sazogadoebis yvelaze srulyofili da gamTlianebuli nawarmoebia. `don kixoti~ ki axali samyaros yvelaze didi qmnilebaa. servantesis romanSi adamianis sulzea saubari, magram ara ukve dacemul, aramed gaucxoebul sulze. misi gmiri codvili ki ara, SeSlilia. igi zogadsakacobrio xvedris miRma dgas, radganac gawyvita kavSiri samyarosTan. don kixotis istorias ver uwodeb kacobriobis istoriis gansaxierebas. igi gamonaklisia. igi ironiuli msoflaRqmis magaliTia, romelic aqamde uaryofiT midis: igi iseTi araa, rogorc yvela sxva adamiani. lamanCeli raindis xetiali ar aris RmerTis rCeuli xalxis TavgadasavalTa alegoria. esaa gzasacdenili, martoxela adamianis alegoria (pasi 1999: 4).

am TvalsazrisiT, don kixoti konstantine savarsmiZis arqetipadac SeiZleba gaviazroT. qarTul modernistul romanebSi xdeba droSi `CaRrmaveba~. am gziT xdeba drois arsis Semecneba. Jan-pol sartri folkneris roman `xmauri da mZvinvarebis~ droze dakvirvebisas SeniSnavs: `awmyo gatenilia xvrelebiT, saidanac warsuli ambebi – gayinulni, uZravni da mdumareni – iWrebian masSi. gmiris cnobiereba `warsulSi vardeba~ da isev wamoiwevs, raTa kvlav Cavardes. awmyo ar arsebobs, is modis~ (sartri 1984: 8).

drois aseTi xvrelebiT aris savse qarTuli modernistuli romanebi, romelTagan zogs miTis, zogs zRaprisa da legendis, zogs istoriis, zogs raime konkretuli ambis siRrmeSi mihyavs mkiTxveli. `sanavardoSi~ warsuli mxolod imitom SemoiWreba, rom awmyos ubadrukobas gaesvas xazi. Tavad yaramanis gvari `grgvinavda warsulSi. gvaris mematiane daSvra WilaZeTa gmiruli warsulis aRweraSi. es gvari flobda didebul WyondidelTa kverTxs da zviadad ganagebda sanavardos, saWilaos, marans, orpirs, qoreisubans~ (sartri 1984: 5). yaramans ki warsulidan mxolod sagvareulo seni SemorCa. amitomac gvariT Tumca amayobda, imavdroulad, adanaSaulebda gvarsve Tavisi Svilis ubedurebaSi. saqarTvelos warsuli ki didad ar anaRvlebda. `saqarTvelos dardsa da warsul didebas RvinoSi Tu moigonebda~ (Sengelaia 1983 :6). warsuli, yaramanis mamis saxiT SvilSi – bondoSi gansxeulda TiTqos.

sazogadod, XX saukunis literatura gamoirCeva drois mxatvruli xatebis ZiebiT. `Tanamedrove mweralTa umetesoba, – wers Jan-pol sartri, – prusti, joisi, dos pasosi, folkneri, gaidi da virjinia vulfi, Seecada TiToeuli, Taviseburad daemaxinjebina dro. zogierTma gamoiyvana dro warsulidan da momavlidan da wamis wminda intuiciamde Seamcira. sxvebma, dos pasosis msgavsad, is meqanikur da SezRudul mogonebad aqcies. prustma da folknerma, ubralod, Tavi mohkveTes dros. maT uaryves momavali – ase vTqvaT, sazomi Tavisufali arCevanisa da qmedebisa~ (sartri1984: 120.

qarTveli modernisti mwerlebic `TviTneburad~ epyrobian dros. isini Tavisuflad gadaanacvleben drois Tanmimdevrul monakveTebs, warmosaxvaSi `ureven~ da am gziT swvdebian adamianis droSi arsebobis saidumloebas. maT ainteresebT adamiani universalur droSi – maradiul awmyoSi.

arCibald mekeSis gonebas xSirad moicavs xolme burani da TvalRia sizmars miecema. am SemTxvevaSi xdeba CaRrmaveba. arCibald mekeSi mogonebiT midis sadRac Sors. mesopotamia – sparseTi: es uaxlesi gzaa. magram swored am gzis mogonebiT gavla uSoresia. mesopotamia akvania kacobriobis. aq TviTon niadagSia aseTi guneba. aq TiTqo yvelaferi bavSvia kidev, magram ramdeni gauvlia am bavSvs. swored bavSvis xanis mogonebaa rTuli. radgan misi xana ugrZelesia yvela xanaze. didi tolstoi hoi ra marTalia. pirveli wlidan mxuTe wlamde xani ufro grZelia, vidre mexuTe wlidan meoTxmoce wlamde. ugenialesi sinamdvile. vin icis. egeb ukan pirveli wlis ukan) saSosken xani kidev ufro metia. uTuod metia~ (Sengelaia 1960: 26).

arCibald mekeSs sakuTari fesvebis Zieba sxvadasxva mxareSi gadaisvris – fiqrebiT Tu realurad. yvelgan grZnobs saocar erTobas – rogorc zogadad adamiani, magram rogorc konkretuli rasis pirovneba, ver isvenebs da Tavis sakuTar miwas daeZebs. ase magaliTad, mesoptamiaSi, romelic mas kacobriobis akvnad warmoudgeba, igi grZnobs miwis sinorCes. `aq aris pirveli miwa: pirveli sicocxle~. swored aq igznebs Tavis Zirebs, rogorc adamiani.

arCibald mekeSi mTeli romanis manZilze ase `mogzaurobs~ droSi. xan midis `Sors~, xan modis `Soridan~. xolo es `Sors~ xan egviptea,xan siria, xan `samoTxe~… amitomacaa, rom mis arsebobas, cxovrebas, azrovnebasa da gznebas ganapirobebs uZveles xalxTa warmodgenebi samyaros arsze. mis fiqrTa mdinarebaSi irekleba egvipturi, induri Tu sparsuli sibrZne. xdeba Zvel aRmosavlur swavlebaTa erTgvari sinTezi.

baRdadidan hamadanamde arCibald mekeSma mravaljer daadga fexi im balaxs, romelic, gadmocemiT, adamians gzas urevs. `arc iqiT. arc aqeT. arc win. arc ukan. arc zemo. arc qvemo. gza abneuli atomi retdasxmuli… mekeSi eZebs Tavis Tavs. ver naxulobs fesvebs~. arCibaldi xSirad `dneba~ sivrceSi. erTi aseTi `gadnobisas~ man igzno, rom: `mTeli are: erTi udidesi arsi aryofili miTosidan: romelic galeSili Tvlemidan erkveva~ da am `gamorkvevisas~ arCibalds `eZleva~ codna, rogorc saswauli. igi grZnobs erTobas yvelaferTan, rac mis irgvlivaa. igi erwymis yovelives, TiTqos iSleba mTeli misi arseba da samyaroSi ganzavdeba, oRond imgvarad, rom Tan ar hkargavs TavisTavs.

`TviTeuli da mTeli.

mTeli – ara grova calkeulebis –

aramed: sxeuli TviTeulebis…

TviTeuli marto: TiTqo mTels gamoyofili…

TviTeuli sxvebTan: TiTqo mTelSi gaxsnili…

qva. mcenare. wyali. cxoveli. kaci.

yoveli am rigiT da am saxiT~ (robaqiZe 1989: 231).

amgvari Serwymis gziT ki igi miagnebs im `erTs~, romelic `yvelafers hqmnis~. `erTi didi usaxelo. ruaxh elohim: sunTqva usaxelosi~. is `erTi~ aris da Tan `mravali~. `igi ar aris arc materia da arc suli.… an ukeT. igi am dayofis maRla dgas~.

msgavsi SegrZnebebi aqvs mTaze ganmartoebul hans kastorps (T. manis `jadosnuri mTis~ gmirs): `am dros erTbaSad Tavisi cxovrebis im adreul wlebSi gadavida, am ramdenime Ramis win nanaxi uaxlesi STabeWdilebebiT aRZrul sizmars rom edo safuZvlad. iseTi Zlieri, mTliani da dro-Jamisa da sivrcis gamauqmebeli iyo es gadasvla cnebebSi `iq~ da `maSin~, rom Tamamad SeiZleboda geTqvaT, aq, zeviT, CanCqeris piras, Zeliskamze usulo sxeuli wevs, xolo namdvili hans kastorpi gardasul Jamsa da garemoSi imyofeba, Tumca, ubralo, magram mainc saxifaTo da gulisamaCqrolebel situaciaSio~ (mani 1984: 197).

arCibald mekeSis CaRrmaveba droSi – irubaqiZeTa gvaris istoriis gzneba – aris sakuTari arsebis Caketili `sivrceebis~ gasaRebi. gavixsenoT epizodi: xelnawerebiT savse kolofs zed ewera: `gaxseni kolofi maSin, roca erTi fiqriT iqne liToniviT avsili~. `erTi fiqriT~ avsebas arCibaldma sicocxlis TiTqmis naxevari moandoma. dro jer Setborda TiTqos erT adgilas da Semdeg `CaRrmavda~ – es ar aris ubralod warsuli – Cavlili da gardasuli. am `CaRrmavebul~ droSi – dro ar aris gayofili monakveTebad, aramed mTliania, amitomac warsuli erTdroulad awmyoc aris da momavalic. arCibaldma sakuTar TavSi unda igrZnos gardasul irubaqiZeTa `vneba~ da es, marTlac, ase xdeba.

romanSi `wami~ da `maradi~ erTmaneTSi gadadis da enacvleba. erT epizodSi, varskvlavian RameSi, arCibaldi usmens sferoTa musikas – es musika `droSia~, amitomac aris rom igi usmens `wams~ da `miriads~ erTdroulad – swvdeba drois Sobis saidumloebas.

romanSi Tumca ar aris kalendaruli dro gamqrali, magram misi funqcia minimumamdea dayvanili. Sinagani dro, romelic gansazRvrulia gmiris fiqrebiT, gancdiT, gansjiT – gadafaravs `garegnul~ dros. drois es umciresi, obieqtur da astronomiul droSi fiqsirebuli monakveTebi usazRvvrod farTovdeba cnobierebis nakadis, asociaciebis, personaJTa fiqrebisa da azrebis, warmodgenebisa da xilebis wyalobiT, – wers rezo yaralaSvili joisisis `uliseze~ dakvirvebisas, – gmiris cnobierebas mkiTxveli gadahyavs uSores warsulsa da momavalSi, istoriasa da miTosSi, sxvadasxva qveyanasa da mxareSi. aseTi teqnikis saSualebiT sul mcire droc saocrad tevadi xdeba. awmyos yoveli wami mTel samyaroebs moicavs, rac drois sruli gaqrobis, `axlas~ dausrulebeli denadobis SegrZnebas warmoSobs. es yovelive SesaZlebeli xdeba cnobierebis moZraobis mikroskopuli analizis, azris umciresi niuansebisa da detalebis naturalisturi aRnusxvis meSveobiT~ (yaralaSvili  1984: 75).

`gvelis perangSi~ awmyo ar aris mkafiod gamijnuli warsulisa da momavlisagan. is iracionaluria Tavisi arsiT. yvelaferi warsulSi momxdaria, magram isev xdeba awmyoSi. dro ar misdevs qronologias, aramed impulsebs, STabeWdilebebs, emociebs, SegrZnebebs.

imavdroulad, romanSi wamotivtivdeba `wminda dro~, romelic gamoricxavs drois mdinarebas – qronoss. grigol robaqiZe axdens drois berZnuli (miTosuri) da bibliuri kocefciebis Serwymas, amgvari sinTezi ki ganapirobebs arCibald mekeSis mxatvruli saxis siRrmesa da sirTules.

`wminda droSi~ inaxeba Tesli, romelic profanulSi gamovlindeba, rogorc `mama~ an `Svili~. Tesli – es aris `me~, `is~ da `sxva~ erTad – xolo `gamovlenilSi~ cal-calke. Tan am ganyofisas `is~ ar ikargeba da rCeba, rogorc `sxva – aryofili~.

`warmomSobi Zala kosmiuri.

mama da Svili erTad. erTimeoreSi. mama. `erTi~. Svili mama da Tan `sxva~. jeims joisi wers ~uliseSi~: `is, rac momavalSi unda moxdes, axlave afens sakuTar Crdils~.

`gvelis perangis~ personaJi taba-tabai ambobs: `raRac suni sdis… momavals~. grigol robaqiZe wers romanSi: `warsuls mxolod iynosav, sxvarig mas ver aiTviseb. gardasuls surnelis gzneba Tu moabrunebs~. swored amgvari `surnelis~ gznebiT abrunebs mwerali warsuls iransa Tu sparseTSi. `sparseTis titvel napralebTan, RamiT, roca mTvare aTovda fantasmebs, arCibaldma igrZno, rom daibada qveynis meore piri: usaxelo – usxeulo – xeluxlebi – orali. dRidan gamoyolilma mzis cxelma surnelma masSi `gaacocxla~ ori aTasi wlis winaT rogor Seagdo aleqsandrem Tavisi bucefali ekbatanis simagreebSi. imavdroulad, warmosaxvaSi wamotivtivdeba soleiman brwyinvalis mier cxenis Segdeba aia-sofiis taZarSi. ori sxvadasxva `sivrcisa~ da `drois~ movlena gmiris cnobierebis `maradiul droSi~ SeerTda – orsave SemTxvevaSi gznebas aRvivebda `vneba da gadalaxva~, rom `kacuri marTlac scildeba aq kacuris kidurs~.

marsel prustmac surneliT daabruna warsuli. igi werda: `is, rasac goneba gvawvdis warsulis saxeliT, marTla warsuli rodia. sinamdvileSi Cveni cxovrebis yoveli wuTi – iseve rogorc micvalebulTa sulebi zogierT xalxur legendaSi – sikvdilisTanave saxierdeba da Tavs afarebs romelime materialur sagans. datyvevebulia, samudamod datyvevebuli, sanam am sagans ar gadaveyrebiT. misi meSveobiT ganvlil wuTs SevicnobT, vuxmobT da vaTavisuflebT~. CaiSi Camlbarma orcxobilis gemom da surnelma mweralSi saswaulebrivi gancda gamoiwvia: `uecrad mexsierebis mijnebi moirRva, Cems gonebaSi agarakze gatarebuli wlebi SemoiWra da Tan moiyola zafxulis mravali dila, bednieri wuTebis uwyveti nakadi~ (prusti 1993: 3).

Tu prusti amgvari gziT Tavis piradad gancdil, konkretul warsuls abrunebda da dakargul dros kvlav moipovebda, grigol robaqiZe zogadad adamianis, kacobriobis warsuls `iynosavs~ da acocxlebs, igznebs.

netari avgustine Tavis `aRsarebanSi~ wers: `aris sami dro-awmyo warsulisa, awmyo awmyosi da awmyo momavlisa. es raRac sami dro mxolod Cvens sulSi arsebobs da sxvagan versad ver vxedavT maT. awmyo warsulisa-mexsierebaa, awmyo awmyosi – uSualo Wvreta, awmyo momavlisa ki molodini~ (netari avgustine 1996: 2).

arCibald mekeSi swored amgvarad ganicdis dros – igi awmyoSia, Tan warsulsa da momavalSi, radgan mudmivad ixsenebs warsuls, mudmivad Wvrets da mudmivad elodeba. drois amgvarad ganmcdeli adamianisTvis samyaro gamWvirvale xdeba da dafaruli xelSesaxebi.

xorxe luis borxesi musikas drois idumal formad miiCnevda. `Sopenhaueri ambobs: musikas ZaluZs iarsebos sivrcis gareSe, musika droa. me gavagrZele es azri da vifiqre, rom RmerTs ar Seuqmnia sivrce, man Seqmna dro, an Seqmna Tanmimdevroba. asec SeiZleba iTqvas. ase rom, SesaZlebelia, iarsebos sityvebis, musikis, bgerebis meSveobiT erTmaneTTan urTierTobaSi myofma cnobierebaTa samyarom, romelic ar saWiroebs sivrces. igi sivrcis gareSe dgas, Tu ar CaTvliT, rom es gansazRvreba TviTon warmoadgens sivrcobriv saxes. advilad warmosadgenia pirwmindad droismieri samyaro, pirwmindad sivrcobrivis – SeuZlebelia~ (borxesi 1996: 117).

`dro-Txrobis stiqia~, – ase uwodebs dros Tomas mani `jadosnur mTaSi~. misi azriT, moTxrobas orgvari dro aqvs: sakuTari, musikalur-realuri dro, romelic mis srbolas, mis gamovlenas ganapirobebs da meorec, Sinaarsiseuli dro, romelic perspeqtiulia, oRond am TvalsazrisiT ise sxvadasxvagvari, rom moTxrobis moCvenebiTi dro lamis savsebiT emTxveva Tavissave musikalur dros. Tomas mans magaliTad mohyavs xuT wuTiani valsis xuT wuTSi Sesruleba, `xolo moTxroba, romlis Sinaarsiseuli drois xangrZlivoba xuT wuTamde aRwevs, am xuT wuTs zedmiwevniT keTilsindisierad Tu Seavsebs, SeiZleba aTasjer metxans gagrZeldes da xanmoklec gveCvenos, Tumca Tavis moCvenebiT drosTan SedarebiT SeiZleba Zalze gaxangrZlivdes kidec. meore mxriv, isic SesaZlebelia, im moTxrobis Sinaarsiseulma drom, romlis sakuTari xangrZlivoba Semoklebis wyalobiT ganuzomeli xdeba. diax, Semoklebas vambobT, raTa warmovaCinoT is iluzoruli, anu ufro naTlad rom vTqvaT, avadmyofuri elementi, rac aq zedgamoWrili gvgonia, radgan swored im hermetul magiasa da droismier zeperspeqtivas, zogierT aranormalur da aSkarad zegrZnobadi sferos momcvel realur gamocdilebas rom mogvagonebs~. Tomas mans am SemTxvevaSi Triaqis mwevelis magaliTi mohyavs, xanmokle transis dros aT, ocdaaT da meti wlebis momcvel sizmrebs rom xedavs (mani 1984: 24).

xulio kortasaris `mdevarSi~ warmoCenilia musikisa da drois originaluri urTierTdamokidebuleba. saqsafonisti joni musikas ganicdis, rogorc Zalas, romelic `drois nakadSi iTrevs~. `roca vukrav, dros ar vwydebi, mxolod viTqvifebi masSi~ (kortasari 1984: 123). igi uceb dakvras Sewyvets da ambobs: `amas me ukve xval vukrav~. `vinaidan joni yovelTvis `xval~ ukravs, mis mier im wuTSi dakruli ki ukan rCeba, rCeba swored im `dRes~, romelsac iolad usxlteba igi Tavisi musikis pirvelive bgerebiT~ (kortasari 1984: 122). `me vteni xolme mTel Cems musikas im mcire droSi, roca vukrav~, – ambobs joni. mas ukvirs, rogor SeiZleba, rom `saaTis meoTxedi fiqrobde da amasobaSi mxolod wuTnaxevari gavides?~ `metroTi mgzavrobisas ise vgrZnob Tavs, TiTqos zed saaTze vijde. sadgurebi – wuTebi. gesmis, es Cveni droa, Cveulebrivi dro. magram me vici, arsebobs sxva droc da vcdilob, rame gavugo~ (kortasari 1984: 1270. joni ase hyveba dakvrisas gancdilze: `ar arsebobda CemTvis arc dro da arc Semdeg. ar arsebobda araviTari `Semdeg~.… raRac wamiT maradisobaSi aRmovCndi da fiqradac ar momsvlia, rom es yovelive sicrue iyo, rom musikis gamo damemarTa ase, rom musikam gamiyolia da damaxvia Tavbru… dakvra rogorc ki davasrule,… imave wuTSi sakuTar Tavs davubrundi~ (kortasari 1984: 167).

joisis `ulises~ meTxuTmete epizodSi fantasmagoriulad ixateba dro. TiTqos igi musikis saSualebiT Tavisufldeba yovelgvari `artaxebisgan~ da gapirovndeba. profesori gudvini roialze ukravs. mTeli sameZao saxli Seipyro “moZraobis poeziam~ (ase uwodebs joisi cekvas), dromac TiTqos dro ixelTa: “kunWulidan dilis saaTebi gamofrTxialdebian, oqrosTmianebi, tankenarebi, msubuq sandlebSi, qalwulebriv iisferebSi gamowyobilni, ubiwo xelebiT. moxdenilad ceekvaven, saxtunela bawars atrialeben. maT qarvaoqrosfersamosiani SuadRis saaTebi mosdeven. mxiarul ferxulSi Cabmulni, didroni savarcxlebis brWyvialiT, xelebs maRla sweven da anci sarkeebiT mzis aTinaTs iWeren~. `mwuxris saaTebi erTmaneTSi ixlarTebian, erTmaneTs rkalad gadaaWdoben mklavebs, ileTebis mozaikas qmnian~ (joisi 1983: 75).

`nebismieri sazogadoeba sakuTar `msoflxats~, `samyaros models~ ayalibebs. es modeli aracnobieris sferoSi iSveba da igi drois Sesaxeb Taviseburi warmodgenebiT sazrdoobs~, – wers oqtavio pasi. misi azriT, dro udides rols TamaSobs samyaros modelirebaSi. adamianebi arasodes aRiqvamen dros, rogorc wminda xangrZlivobas. igi mowesrigebuli, marTvadi, garkveul Sedegze mimarTuli procesia. adamianuri qcevebi da sityvebi droisganaa nakeTebi, isini – droa: moZraoba aqeT an iqiT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, rogori iqneba realoba – aRvniSnavT mas `aq~Tu `iq~, an Tundac `arsad~. dro-sazrisis sacavia~ (pasi 1999: 4).

floberis prozaze dakvirvebisas, J. Jeneti SeniSnavs dumilis momentebs. misi azriT, aRwerebis simdidres floberTan iwvevs Wvretis siyvaruli, aRwera xSirad viTardeba aRwerisTvis, moqmedebis xarjze. amgvari `dumilis momentebi~ xSiria qarTul modernistul rommanebSi. am dros Txroba TiTqos Cerdeba da qvavdeba `saganTa gamaqvavebeli mzerisagan~ (sartri). Jenetis azriT, aq aris ormagad usityvo momentebi: pirvel rigSi, imitom, rom personaJebma Sewyvites laparaki da usmenen samyaros xmebs da Tavis ocnebebs. meored imitom, rom es Sesveneba dialogSi aCerebs TviTon romanis metyvelebas, raRac drois xangrZlivobas ganazavebs munj kiTxvaSi. aris erTgvari musikaluri momentebi, roca Txroba ikargeba da daiviwyeba mWvretelobiT eqstazSi. aseTi Sesvenebis udroo xasiaTi xazgasmulia zmnis axlandel droze gadasvliT. (Jeneti 1998: 229). misive azriT, floberma pirvelma daiwyo kritika naratiuli funqciisa, rac dRemde safuZvelia romanisa. Txrobis amgvar `usiyvarulobaSi~ Cans Tanamedrove literaturis erTi aspeqti.

aRwera aRwerisTvis xSirad gvxvdeba qarTul modernistul romanebSi. aqac Sesustebulia naratiuli funqcia. Wvreta Warbobs moqmedebas. es ki iwvevs drois gauqmebasa da maradisobis SegrZnebas.

`tramvai mixrialebs.

rusTvelis prospeqti mzeSia gaSxvarTuli.

prospeqtze kaci midis – (Suagul quCaSi: qvafenils gaurbis). acvia rusuli `surTuki~ moxelis folaqebiT: ukve gacveTili. fexebze – getrebi:esec gacveTili. sayeloze – farTo yelsaxvevi Zirs gaSlili. kaci maRali tanisaa. Tavze `kakardiani~ qudi. magram midis rogorc oskar uaild. adamianTa maRla ixedeba. Semogxedavs – (ara: Tvals mogkravs) – da uecrad aileweba: tani igrixeba da maRldeba. kaci odnav gaiRimebs. Semdeg isev Sors iwyebs cqeras~ (robaqiZe  1989: 215). am kacs sxvagan romanSi aRar SevxvdebiT, miuxedavad amisa, mwerali dawvrilebiT aRwers mis nakvTebsa da moZraobebs.

ai, ase aRwers savarsamiZe baronesas sasaxles: `garedan es saxli TvalsaCino rames ar warmoadgenda. tipiuri antiuri sasaxle, romelsac zedve etyoba mravalgzisi restavracia. wina nawilis SuagulSi Cveulebrivi romauli atriumi. SuSiT gadaxuruli erdo. ukana korpusSi gayviTlebuli doriuli svetebiT Semortymuli romauli peristoli~ (gamsaxurdia  1992: 171).

Sarl bodleri wers `xelovnur samoTxeSi~: `ras warmoadgens adamianis tvini, Tu ara ukidegano da bunebriv palifsests? Cemi tvini palimfsestia da Tqvenic, mkiTxvelo, agreTve. azrTa, grZnobaTa uamravi Sre Tqvens tvinSi dadebulia erTmaneTze, erTimeoris miyolebiT msubuqad, rogorc sinaTle. TiTqos yovel momdevnos unda daemarxa wina, magram sinamdvileSi arc erTi ar momkvdara. daviwyeba aRmoCnda wuTieri da romeliRac sazeimo wuTebSi, SesaZloa, swored sikvdilisas, an saerTod, Zlieri aRgznebisas, romelsac qmnis opiumi, es usazRvro da rTuli palimfsesti xsovnisa datrialdeba erTdroulad, yvela SriT, dabalzamirebuli saidumlo TemebiT, romelTac Cven daviwyebas vuwodebT. imis msgavsad, rom nebismieri moqmedeba, samyaroSi gasrolili, TavisTavad Seuqcevadi da aRudgeneli, rogorc nebismieri azri – waruSlelia. xsovnis palimfsesti daurRvevelia~.

am `palimfsestis~ yvela Sres, ra Tqma unda, Tavisi dro aqvs da roca romelime maTgani zedapirze wamotivtivdeba, is Tavis drosac moiyolebs. rac ufro rTulia xasiaTi, miT ufro ulevia palimfsestis SreTa raodenoba. qarTuli modernistuli romanis gmirTa xsovnac palimfsesturi figuralobiT warmoudgeba mkiTxvels.

zedapirze arsebuli qceva xSirad ganpirobebulia am xsovnis palimfsestis romeliRac miviwyebuli SriT. magaliTad, savarsamiZis aRzrdam erTgvarad ganapiroba misi gaorebuloba warmarTobasa da qristianobas Soris. bavSvobis `dro~ masSi ar waiSala da Sesabamis pirobebSi ifeTqebs xolme. xom ambobs kidec erTi personaJi – iohanes noiSteti: `yoveli adamiani mudam erTsa da imaves ganicdis… mxolod sxvadasxva variaciiT, bavSvobis pirvel Rimilidan pirvel vnebamdis, pirveli vnebidan – pirvel sikvdilamdis~ (Jeneti 1998: 235).

sikvdili ganicdeba, rogorc maradiulad arsebuli dro adamianSi – dabadebidan `bolo sikvdilamde~. `Cven sicocxleSive mravaljer unda movkvdeT. Cven bavSvobaSi vcocxlobT mxolod namdvili cxovrebiT. sxva danarCeni adamituri ucodvelobis mogonebaa da adrindel bednierebaze dardi. me sisxli meyineba, roca gavifiqreb, rom Cven sikvdilisgan dadaRuli vibadebiT, merme Cvens tuCebze aTasi Rimili ielvebs da sikvdili yvelas ise walekavs, rogorc qviSaze frinvelis nakvalevs qari~ (gamsaxurdia 1992:  235).

sikvdilis SiSs ganapirobebs adamianis mier momavlis ucodinrobac. bianka eubneba savarsamiZes, rom maTi saxlis win gamxmari nuSi erTi wlis darguli iyo. `moulodnelad mokvda is nuSis xe, misgan Civili aravis gaugonia! ai, netav Cven SegveZlos viswavloT uCivlelad sikvdili~.

droSi CaRrmavebiT qarTuli modernistuli romanebis gmirebisTvis naTeli xdeba konfliqti maTsa da dros Soris. axalma drom moitana imgvari ram, rac maT xels uSlida transcendentalur samyarosTan kavSirSi. RmerTTan misasvleli gza TiTqos gaSualda. (es gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba konstantine savarsamiZisa da bondo WilaZis saxeebSi). `miwa da ca, romelic filosofiam RmerTebis gareSe datova, TandaTan saSinelma teqnikurma konstruqciebma daikava. mxolod erTia, rom es qmnilebebi arafers gamoxataven da arsebiTad, metyvelebis unarsac moklebulni arian. romanuli taZrebis, budisturi safexurebis, mesoamerikuli piramidebis safuZvelSi drois ideaa Cadebuli da maT formaSi samyaros Sesaxeb warmodgenaa ganxorcielebuli: arqiteqtura TiTqos kosmosis simboluri oreuli iyo. barokuli sasaxle – mrude xazebis monologi, romelic itoteba da erTdeba, netarebisa da sikvdilis monologi, mogoneba, romelsac daviwyeba cvlis, indoelTa taZari – qvis erotiuli Sambnari… ras gveubnebian Cven rkinigzis sadgurebi, dawesebulebaTa Senobebi, qarxnebi da sazogadoebrivi Zeglebi? eseni ver metyveleben – eseni funqciebi arian da ara mniSvnelobebi, energiis centrebi, nebisyofis Zeglebi, Zal-RoniT aRsavse niSnebi – magram ara sazrisi. Zveli qmnilebebi sinamdvilis Sesaxeb warmodgenebs gamoxatavdnen – rogorc realuris, ise warmosaxviTis. teqnikis qmnilebani sinamdvileze Zaladobaa~, `samyaro rogorc modeli, rogorc xati, qreba~ (pasi  1999: 4).

 

 

damowmebani

 

borxesi 1994:  borxesi x. baRi `romelSic bilikebi itotebian. J. `XX saukune~, #1, 1994

borxesi 1996: borxesi x. enigmaTa sarke. Tb. 1996

buaCiZe 1993: buaCiZe T. fridrix nicSe da misi ese ityoda zaratustra~. wignSi ase ityoda zaratustra~. Tb. 1993

gamsaxurdia 1992: gamsaxurdia k. dionisos Rimili. Txz. 20tomad. t.II. Tb. 1992

gomarTeli 1997: gomarTeli a. qarTuli simbolisturi proza. Tb. 1997

emersoni 1989: emersoni r, essebi,Tb.1989

kiziria 1989: kiziria d. grigol robaqiZis `gvelis perangi” rusul-evropuli simbolizmis konteqstSi~. gaz. `liter. saqarTvelo~, 2 ivnisi, 1989

kortasari 1984: kortasari x. mdevari, Tb. 1984

losevi 1990: losevi a. samyaros dialeqtika, Mm. 1990 (rusul enaze)

mani 1984 : mani T. jadosnuri mTa. Tb. t.I. Tb. 1978, t.II. Tb. 1984

mani 1989:mani T. essebi,Tb.1989

netari avgustine 1996: netari avgustine. dro. gaz. `liter. saqarTvelo~, 23 – 30 agvisto, 1996

nicSe 1993:  nicSe, f. ese ityoda zaratustra. Tb. 1993

pasi 1999: pasi o. axali analogia. poezia da teqnologia. gaz. “arili”. 8-21, aprili. 1999

prusti 1993:prusti m. wignis kiTxva. Tb. 1993

Jeneti 1998: Jeneti J. figurebi, m. 1998 (rusul enaze)

robaqiZe 1991: robaqiZe gr. saqarT. saTaveni J. `liter. da xelov.”.#2, 1991

robaqiZe 1989: robaqiZe gr. `gvelis perangi~, `falestra~. Tb. 1989

sartri 1984:  sartri Jan-pol. dro folkneris romanSi “xmauri da mZvinvareba~. wignSi: `uiliam

folkneri 1984: folkneri u. saubrebi, Tb. 1984

Sengelaia 1983: Sengelaia d. sanavardo. rC. Tb. 1983

Sengelaia 1960: Sengelaia d. Txz. 2tomad, t.II, Tb. 1960

yaralaSvili 1984:yaralaSvili r. drois gauqmeba jeims joisis da herman TxrobaSi. wignSi: jeims joisi-100~. Tb.1984  

yaralaSvili 1988: yaralaSvili r. aRsarebiTi prozis tradicia da Tanamedrove `centriskenuli~ romani. wignSi: `dasavleT evropis literatura~, Tb. 1988

joisi 1983: joisi j. ulise. Tb. 1983

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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